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Main defects and their record


Defect Recorded defect
in roundwood in lumber in veneer

1.

Knots

     

 

Unveiled knots

+ - -

 

- round

- + +|

 

- oval

- + +

 

- spike

- + +

 

- face

- + -

 

- edge

- + -

 

- arris

- + -

 

- frontal

- + -

 

- slash

- + -

 

- scattered

- + -

 

- group

- + -

 

- branched

- + -

 

- intergrown

- + +

 

- partially intergrown

- + +

 

- dead

- + +

 

- loose

- + +

 

- sound

+ + +

 

- - natural colored

- + +

 

- - black

- + +

 

- - with fissures

- + +

 

- partially unsound

+ + +

 

- unsound

+ + +

 

- snuff-colored

+ + +

 

- single-sided

- + -

 

- traversing

- + -

 

Blind knot

+ - -

2.

Fissures

     

 

- heart shake

+ + -

 

- - simple

+ + -

 

- - star shake

+ + -

 

- ring shake

+ + +

 

- frost crack

+ + -

 

- check

+ + -

 

- crack

+ + -

 

- - face check

- + -

 

- - marginal

- + -

 

- end check

+ + -

 

- stopped

+ + -

 

- - surface check

+ + -

 

- - deep

+ + -

 

- traversing

- + -

 

- closed

- - +

 

- split

- - +

3.

Stem form defects

     

 

Diminution

+ +* -

 

Buttress

+ +* -

 

- oval

+ - -

 

- riffled

+ - -

 

Out-of-roundness

+ - -

 

Buckle

+ +* -

 

Sweep

+ +* -

 

- simple

+ +* -

 

- multiple

+ + -

4.

Eccentric growth defects

     

 

Slope of grain

+ + +

 

- tangential

- + +

 

- ray

- + +

 

Trunk eccentricity

+ + +

 

- hard streak

+ + +

 

- strip streak

+ + +

 

Tension wood

- + +

 

Cross grain

- + +

 

- broken

- + +

 

- curly

- + +

 

Feather

- + +

 

- single-sided

- + -

 

- traversing

- + -

 

Burrs

- + +

 

- scattered

- + +

 

- group

- + +

 

- natural colored

- - +

 

- black

- - +

 

Resin pocket

     

 

- single-sided

- + -

 

- traversing

- + -

 

Pith

- + -

 

Double pith

+ + -

 

Monondal pith

+ - -

 

Lateral

+ + +

 

Fire scar

+ +* -

 

Bark pocket

+ + +

 

- exposed

+ + +

 

- - single-sided

- + -

 

- - raversing

- + -

 

- boxed

+ + -

 

- encased

- - +

 

- natural colored

- - +

 

- black

- - +

 

Cancer

+ +* -

 

- surfacial

+ - -

 

- secret

+ + +

 

Resin streak

+ + +

 

False heart

- + +

 

Black mottle

- + +

 

- tangential

- + +

 

- ray

- + +

 

- fibers

- + +

 

- - scattered

- - +

 

- - group

- - +

 

- - fibers paths

- - +

 

Plethora

+ + +

 

Watermark

+ + -

5.

Mineral streaks

- + ±

 

- red stain

- + +

 

- yellowness*

- + +

 

- natural colored

- - +

 

- black

- - +

6.

Fungal attacks

     

 

Dark hearts

+ + +

 

Mold

- + +

 

Brown stains

+ + +

 

- blue stains

+ + +

 

- colored sap stains

+ + +

 

- natural colored

- + +

 

- dark

- + +

 

- surfacial

+ + -

 

- deep

+ + -

 

- under layer

+ + -

 

Brow stains

+ + +

 

- frontal

+ - -

 

- side

+ - -

 

Rot

+ + ±

 

- mottled

+ + -

 

- dry

+ + -

 

- white spongy**

+ + -

 

- sap

+ + ±

 

- - hard sap

+ + ±

 

- - soft

+ + ±

 

- heart

+ + ±

 

- external powdered

+ - -

 

Hollow

+ + ±

7.

Biological damages

     

 

Hole

+ + ±

 

- surfacial

+ +* -

 

- shallow

+ + -

 

- deep

+ + -

 

- - grubhole

+ + ±

 

- - pinhole

+ + ±

 

- traversing

- + +

 

Damages caused by birds

+ - -

8.

Foreign inclusions, mechanical damage. Imperfect processing

     

 

Foreign inclusions

+ + -

 

Carbonization

+ + -

 

Mechanical damage to bark

+ - -

 

Face

+ +* -

 

Backcut wood want

+ + -

 

Wane

- + -

 

- blunt

- + -

 

- sharp

- + -

 

 

- - +

 

Notches

- + +

 

Crimps

- + -

 

Wooliness

- + +

 

Fuzziness

- + +

 

Fringe

- + -

 

Jag

+ + -

 

Gash

+ + -

 

Beard

+ + -

 

Butt damage

+ + -

 

Eyebrow

+ + -

 

Agnail

- + -

 

Gap per edge

+ + ±

 

Plucked

- + -

 

Chip

- + -

 

Low spot

- + +

 

Ragged face cut

- + -

 

Ripples

- - +

 

Cut

- + +

 

Scrape

- + +

 

Flay mark

- + -

 

Imperfect shaping

- + -

 

Comb

- + +

 

Rubbing through lace

- + -

 

Imperfect polishing

- + -

 

Burned surface

- + -

9.

Warp

- + +

 

Bow

- + -

 

- simple

- + -

 

- compound

- + -

 

Spring

- + -

 

Cup

- + -

 

Twist

- + -


Notes:
+ - stands for recorded defects.
+* - stands for a defect occurring in the coniferous.
+** - stands for a defect occurring in the hardwood.

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